Battle of Chaeronea

Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Main article: Battle of Chaeronea The star of Vergina, symbol of the Macedonian monarchy. The Fourth Philippic (340 BC), was actually a declaration of war that led to another defeat at the hands of Greek Macedonians: Thanks largely to the efforts of Demosthenes, the attempt of Philip, in 340 BC C., to capture Byzantium (now Istanbul) was delayed. In 341 BC C. Demosthenes was sent to Byzantium, where he sought to renew the alliance with Athens. Through its diplomatic maneuvers Abidos also joined the cause. Moreover, these events worried Philip and increased their animosity against Demosthenes. The Athenian assembly, however, failed to consider complaints against the conduct of Philip Demosthenes and denounced the peace treaty, which effectively meant a declaration of war. In 339 BC C.Philip made his last and greatest movement for the conquest of southern Greece, assisted by the support of Aeschines in the framework of the Anficton a. During the Council meeting, Philip accused the city of Anfisa in Locris of invading hallowed ground. The presiding officer of the Council, a Thessalian named COTIF, proposed the convening of Congress to impose Anficton a exemplary punishment. Aeschines agreed with this proposal and kept that the Athenians should participate in the Congress, although reversed Demosthenes Aeschines initiatives and Athens finally abstained. After the failure of the first military excursion to Locris, summer session gave the Anficton a command of forces in the league to Philip, and asked him to lead a second excursion. Philip decided to act immediately. The winter of 339-338 BC C. passed through Thermopylae and entered Anfisa, where he quickly won the city’s population.After this significant victory, Philip entered Phocis in 338 BC C. and then headed southeast, down the valley of the river Cephissus, to besiege and capture Elateia City, where he restored the fortifications. Meanwhile, Athens was dedicated to forging an alliance with the cities of Euboea, Megara, Achaia, Corinth, Acarnania, as well as other less important states of the Peloponnese. In any case, the desired alliance with Athens was the city-state of Thebes. In order to achieve such an alliance, Athens sent Demosthenes to the city of Boeotia. Philip, meanwhile, also sent its own delegation to the opposite purpose, but failed to prevent Demosthenes adhere to Thebes to his cause. It has come down to us the full speech of Demosthenes to the Theban people, so that the arguments he used to convince Thebes to join the alliance know.In any case, the alliance came at a price: Politically, the control of Thebes Boeotia was recognized officially. Militarily, Thebes won the supreme command of the Allied land forces, and the joint command of the fleet to Athens in the sea. In addition, Athens would pay two-thirds of total military cost of the campaign. While the Athenians and the Thebans were preparing for war, Philip made a final attempt to appease his enemies, proposing a new peace treaty was not accepted. After this, and after a series of small clashes between the two sides that ended Athenian victories smaller side, Philip was able to carry a Confederate phalanx fighting in the open on a plain near the city of Chaeronea . Despite the alliance between Thebes and Athens, Philip defeated the allied armies in battle in 338 BC C. During the battle Demosthenes participated as a mere hoplite more, and even though some sources say dishonorable behavior.According to Plutarch, Demosthenes deserted the battlefield and “did nothing honorable or their behavior was at the height of his speeches. Such was the hatred of Demosthenes against Philip, as recounted by Diodorus Siculus, the King laughed after the battleof the misfortunes of the Athenian. However, the Athenian orator and politician also said that Demades made the following comment to the king: O King, when Fortune has placed you in the position of Agamemnon, are not you ashamed to act as Thersites According to Diodorus account, Philip react to these words and immediately stopped their attitude. After his victory, Philip was harsh only with Thebes, which he controlled directly by the appointment of Macedonian rulers. Athens was treated in a more magnanimous, forcing him to disband his only league to abandon ship and its possessions in Thrace, while in return guaranteed him independence.