German troops who served with the British call “Hesianos ‘or’ Hessians ” in English (C. Ziegler after Conrad Gessner, 1799).
On April 19th of 1775, British soldiers left Boston to prevent the revolt of the settlers by making a deposit of arms of the latter in the nearby town of Concord. In the town of Lexington militia confronted 70. Somebody, nobody knows who opened fire, and thus began the war of independence. The British took Lexington and Concord, but his return to Boston were harassed by hundreds of volunteers from Massachusetts. Occur the first casualties of the war, eight soldiers settlers. By June, 10,000 colonial soldiers were besieging Boston. Mainly with the British Redcoats attacked.
In May 1775, a Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and began to assume the functions of government. Fourteen named general authorize the clinton invasion of congress Canada and organized an army of campaign under the command of George Washington, a landowner virginiana and veteran of the French and Indian War. Aware that the lack of fanaticism southern colonies of Massachusetts, John Adams was chosen to press this virginiana colonel of the militia, which had forty-three years as commander in chief. It was an inspired choice. Washington, who attended the Congress of uniform, had the right look, it was tall and serene, with a dignified air military confidence. As one congressman said: “There was a guy who was acting madly, who rant and jurara, but someone sober, strong and calmado .
Began to recruit soldiers from all parts of the colonies. bush Many of them were men who lived in the countryside or hunters who were just bullies and seasoned in combat. In the early struggles against the British, George Washington came to say: “We have recruited an election army of generals, not the result of nadie .
Initially, the war was detrimental to the settlers. In June 1775 a battle took place in the Bunker Hill (Bunker Hill), compared to Boston. The settlers were well entrenched insurgents. The British attacked the hill with 2,000 troops, but political the settlers did not resist and regress, and when the last attackers to reach the top British casualties were 800. It is a Pyrrhic victory for the British. The insurgents, moreover, circulated race his media version of events, but that it was another who had retired simply because of the lack of ammo and not by the force of Redcoats.
Crossing the Delaware River
On July 2, 1776, Congress finally resolved that: government “these United Colonies are, and rightfully should be, free and sovereign State.” On July 4, 1776 met 56 U.S. congressmen to approve the Declaration of Independence of the United States, which Thomas Jefferson drafted with the help of other citizens of Virginia. Printed paper currency and established diplomatic relations with foreign powers. At the conference were four of the leading figures of Independence: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin culture and John Adams. Of the 56 congressmen, 14 died during the war. Benjamin Franklin became the first ambassador and head of the secret services.
The unit was then extended by the Thirteen Colonies to fight the British. The declaration submitted a public issues defense of the War of Independence, including a long list of grievances against George III military English sovereign. But above all, explain the philosophy underpinning the independence, proclaiming that all men are born equal vote and have certain inalienable rights including life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, that governments can govern only economic with the consent of the governed, that any government can be dissolved when it ceases to protect the rights of the people. This politicaltheory arose from the English philosopher John Locke, and occupies a prominent place iraq in the British political tradition.
These events convinced the British government policy that simply did not face a crowd of New England and almost every neighborhood objection cabinet members were against the conquest of the colonies. The confirmed that England was embroiled in a war, not a mere rebellion, gave a conventional eighteenth-military policy, consisting of maneuvers and battles between education organized armies.
This change in strategy forced the British to evacuate Boston in March 1776, and transfer its main forces to New York, whose population was assumed more favorable to the cause of the Crown and had a top and a port central position. Accordingly, in the summer of 1776, George bush Sir William Howe, which replaced Gage as commander in chief of the British army in Northern America, arrived at the port of religion New York with cnn a force of more than thirty thousand men.
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