Language, Literature and Art

Main articles: Phoenician language
Languages in the sixth century a. C.
The language spoken by the Carthaginians called Punic language, whose origin is Semitic. also considered by Phoenician origin, was maintained throughout the Carthaginian stage. It spread throughout the metropolitan territory of Carthage, as well as the large islands of the Mediterranean coastal enclaves and many western Punic. In North Africa it was used in the Phoenician cities and colonies, where the indigenous population and rural art prints areas outside it. Is due to its widespread commercial use.
Literature is known through epigraphy, which is poor, as most of the inscriptions are dedications religion, which is always repeated the same inscriptions. The alphabet consisted of 22 letters and was written from right to left, as the current Hebrew. It was a simple system, which allowed the diffusion of knowledge and culture. Differences from the Phoenician are print art scarce. Although we know who created literature, especially religious or historical practices as well as almost all works have been lost. We know the existence of a treaty of Agronomy, translated into latin by offering practical interest for the Romans and the Greek translation of the narration of the Periplus of Hannon for the African coast. Libraries and works in Carthage at the time of its destruction in 146 a. C. passed in part to the kings and the king Mauritania Numida Masinisa.
The language continued to be used after the fall of Carthage, in the kingdoms of Numidia and Mauritania. To 197 d. C. Septimius Severus, a Roman born near Carthage, the Punic culture, became emperor of Rome. It was still widely known and used in museum art the V century by Procopio and Agustin of Hippo, as the language of the peasants in Tunisia. The texts of the time say that even in the sixth century the peasants of Tunisia Punic language used on a daily basis, but the arrival of Islam and the second destruction of the art city of Carthage assumed its definitive end. Probably his last stronghold was the island of Malta.
Carthaginians not highlighted in the arts or the development, but they inherited New york the Phoenicians, whose main characteristic was the lack of distinctive features, as modern art a result of creating a culture with mixed characteristics of various peoples with greek ancient whom they maintained their trade in Egypt, Assyria, from Asia Minor and Greece. The Carthaginians created their first works of art, recreating the distinctive characters of the Phoenician tradition of a rude way. Relations with the Greeks Carthaginians introduced gradually including Greek art is often made by Greek artists. There is evidence that the Greeks were designing Punic coins which was coined from the V century a. C.
During the Sicilian Wars, Carthage was taken as spoils of war that ended many Greek Geneva statues adorning their temples and public squares. The most important sanctuaries dedicated to Carthage Tanit and Baal Hammon were built in the style of the Greek Hellenistic era. Most of roman ancient the symbols that adorn the shrines of the stelae were carved by workers Libyan-Phoenicians, and are inspired by the fauna and flora of calligraphy Africa, creating a distinctive Indian style characteristic of Hellenism. Among those symbols, the most common is an open hand raised skyward. Other symbols are the Uraeus Egyptian solar disk and crescent, which refers to Tanit, the lamb on Baal Hammon, the Caduceo, the elephant, the bull, rabbit, fish, palm tree, the rudder The ancora, ax, lotus flower, glasses of different shapes, craft and fruits.
On the island of Gozo there are ruins of a temple built Tanit in the fourth century a. C. comprises plant sanctuaries ovoid or elliptical. In addition, contemporary art none of the sites listed have been found remains of temples. The reason I do not know that for most buildings Carthaginians cronicas, is because after the conquest of Carthage in 146 a. C. underwent a systematic demolition. Most of the remains of art and coins are kept small wall art clay figurines.

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